Table of Contents
Blood Glucose Management Medication
Medication to control blood pressure
Advice on Counseling
– Listen more than you speak
– Ask open-ended questions
– Show empathy and understanding
– Respect their feelings
– Encourage clients to express their thoughts and feelings
– Provide a safe and non-judgmental environment
– Use positive reinforcement
– Help clients identify solutions to their problems
– Offer resources and support networks
Patients with diabetes mellitus have the potential to develop insulin resistance or not enough insulin from their pancreas. This causes hyperglycaemia. This assignment will explain the use and side effects of two medications to treat hypertension.
Medication to Control Blood GlucoseMetformin (Biguanides).
Metformin, an antidiabetic medication, contains metforminhydrochloride. This drug falls under the chemical drug class biguanide. Metformin is a first-line drug treatment that is specifically prescribed for patients diagnosed with type 2. It is especially recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes who are overweight or obese. Metformin is an oral medication that helps to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Metformin reduces glucose levels in the bloodstream. Also, it decreases glucose capture by the intestinales. As a result, the body cells are more responsive and adequate to insulin. Metformin’s positive effects on glycaemia can also be used by the drug. It increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and can help to maintain or lose weight. Metformin, taken alone, can reduce fasting plasma glucose, postprandial sugar glucose, and HbA1c levels. Metformin medication should be taken daily as a breakfast dose. After that, it is gradually increased to 2-3 times daily with main dishes.
Metformin side effects include dizziness and tiredness, nausea, headaches, stomach pain, cramps, muscle pains, cramps, dizziness, tiredness and muscle pains. The most severe side effect is lactic acidosis, which is primarily due to the body’s accumulation of metformin. However, it’s rare.
When prescribing metformin, there are several things to be aware of. Patients with kidney problems could be at risk of lactic Acidosis, which is caused by higher amounts metformin. This makes the kidneys ineffective. Patients with heart disease should not take metformin. Their heart cannot send enough blood to the organs to remove metformin. However, GPs may recommend metformin for patients with kidney problems. Drinking large quantities of alcohol while taking metformin might cause hypoglycaemia, lactic acidosis, and other health problems.
Keeping track of
Metformin can make homocysteine more common. Metformin therapy can prevent this from happening. Regular monitoring for vitamin B12 is a good idea. Before prescribing metformin, patients must be able to tell if they are allergic to the ingredients.
Advice to consider
Patients should be advised to take metformin every day with their meals. Second, educating patients about hypoglycaemia. Metformin does not cause hypoglycaemia. However, patients who take metformin with other medications could be at risk. Patients need to be made aware of how to avoid low sugar levels. It is important to inform patients about all side effects of metformin, including lactic acidosis.
Sitagliptins (DPP-4 Inhibitors)
Sitagliptin belongs to the anti-diabetic medication class of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4. Metformin is an oral antidiabetic medicine.
Sitagliptin is designed to block DPP-4 action. This enzyme is responsible for primarily destroying gastrointestinal hormone incretins. Incretins (hormone that produces insulin after food) and decreases production of glucose by the liver (during digestion) is called incretins. Glutagon-like peptide-1, (GLP-1), and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide(GIP) both support incretin’s action. People with diabetes mellitus don’t make enough incretin to be as effective as those without it. Sitagliptin medication works by blocking DPP-4. This allows hormone incretin to remain in the body for longer periods of time, which improves GLP-1 and GIP levels. One single 100mg dose sitagliptin can prevent DPP-4 enzyme activation for up to 24 hours. This leads to activation in GLP-1 as well as GIP. The increase in GLP-1 and GIP is accompanied by an insulin-like rise in C-peptide drop glucogons and increased oral glucose tolerance. This increases insulin production, which lowers blood glucose to a healthy level, slows digestion, and decreases appetite. The HbA1c can be reduced by Sitagliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor) to 0.5% – 0.8%
Sitagliptins (DPP-4), can cause nausea and headaches.
Keeping tabs on
Tell patients to have regular physical exams, e.g. Regular physical examinations (e.g., urine and blood tests) can be done to confirm that medications (in this case DPP-4 medications), do not cause any serious side effects. With patients suffering from renal disease, doctors may monitor the kidney function and recommend lower doses (typically 25-50mg).
DPP-4 is not recommended as a first-line diabetes treatment. It should only be used in conjunction with metformin. After metformin. Sitagliptins should never be prescribed to type 1 diabetics for the treatment of diabetes ketoacidosis. Sitagliptins can cause severe stomach discomfort. It should not be prescribed to patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients who have had a history or chronic pancreatitis should be screened immediately. Patients with kidney problems should be aware that sitagliptins can have a prescribed dosage. This means patients must undergo a renal function assessment before sitagliptins are prescribed.
Counseling points include
Patients should be advised to continue taking sitagliptin at the prescribed dosage. Patients who accidentally miss a dose should immediately take it. Patients should stop taking double doses if it is near the next dose.
Medication to Control Blood PressureAcebutolol, (Beta Blockers),
Acebutolol belongs to the beta-blockers group. It is used to treat hypertension and irregular heartbeat. Acebutolol slows down heart action by stopping nerve messages from reaching the heart. The beta-adrenergic relays are blocked, and the heart is able to respond more slowly. This helps reduce hypertension by lowering blood pressure. Patients suffering from angina may also feel less pain as the heart uses less energy.
As with all medications, Acebutolol can cause side effects such as blurred vision, headaches, dizziness and diarrehea. Patients can experience dizziness, fainting, and low blood pressure.
NICE guidelines state that health care professionals should monitor the function of the kidneys and lung in patients with a history to acebutolol. This would allow you to know if your organs are functioning well. It will also help determine if the dosage should be decreased.
The health care professional should check if the female patient is pregnant. Acebutolol may pose a danger to unborn babies if it’s used during pregnancy. Patients with heart, asthma, hyperthyroidism or renal impairments should be evaluated by doctors. They will advise patients to take a low dose of Acebutolol, adjust the dosage, or stop using it altogether depending on their condition. Patients with hypersensitivity should be advised that beta-blockers can cause hypersensitivity. This could lead to severe hypersensitivity reactions.
Counselling PointsCounselling patients should continue to take their medication as directed. Patients shouldn’t suddenly stop taking it, as this could lead to hypertension or other heart-related disorders. Diabetes mellitus patients should monitor their blood sugar levels as the medication may cause hypoglycaemia symptoms.
Benazepril (ACE Inhibitors)
Benazepril is an angiotensin converting inhibitor (ACE) medication therapy for hypertension. ACE is an enzyme that causes the body to develop angiotensin 2. Angiotensin I triggers the contraction of muscles that surround and narrow the blood vessels, which can lead to hypertension . Benazepril (an ACE inhibitor medication) supports the lower blood pressure. It prevents angiotensin-2 from being produced, which essentially relaxes arteries.
Benazepril can cause dizziness. Rarely, ACE inhibitor medication has been linked to liver dysfunction and jaundice . Patients with known allergies and side effects to ACE inhibitor medication should not take Benazepril. If these side effects persist, seek medical attention.
Patients receiving benazepril should be monitored for changes in their renal function. This is because drugs that block the renin-angiotensin pathway can lead to acute renal failure. To ensure that benazepril works effectively, patients should have regular blood pressure checks.
Patients who have impaired kidney function or are at high risk for developing acute renal disease can be given benazepril. For patients with significant impairments in renal function, doctors may stop or withhold benazepril. Benazepril is a pregnancy category-D medication and doctors should verify that patients are not pregnant.
It is vital to advise patients not to take potassium supplements or salt substitutes with potassium. This could lead to potassium levels that are dangerous and could cause serious health problems. Notifying patients about any infection symptoms (e.g. Sore throat, fever, etc. You should immediately seek medical attention as this could indicate neutropenia.